Işık Üniversitesi Proficiency Hazırlık

IŞIK ÜNİVERSİTESİ PROFICIENCY HAZIRLIK

Işık Üniversitesi Proficiency Hazırlık Programı

1 -  Işık Üniversitesi Proficiency  Hazırlık ( Birebir -  Işık Üniversitesi Proficiency Hazırlık
2 -Işık Üniversitesi Proficiency Hazırlık  ( Birebir - Işık Üniversitesi Proficiency  Hazırlık

Işık Üniversitesi Proficiency Hazırlık eğitim merkezinde  Işık Üniversitesi Proficiency Hazırlık programında, yeni yöntem ve sınav çözüm teknikleri ile donanmış Işık Üniversitesi Proficiency Hazırlık programlarına katılarak Proficiency sınavında başarılı olabilir ve Proficiency Akademik Eğitimin deneyimli eğitmenlerinden yararlanabilirsiniz.

 

 

ÖRNEK SINAV
Health and Alternative Healing

Today millions of people are going through their lives leading unhealthy lifestyles. If people’s lifestyle is not a healthy balance - for instance if they are exercising too little, eating an unbalanced diet, getting involved in drugs or other unhealthy practices - they aremore likely to have trouble concentrating or be unhappy, depressed, or ill.
People’s lifestyle has a big affect on how they feel and what they get out of life, now and in the future. Despite this importance, many people don’t understand what it means to live a healthy life. Most health professionals agree that a healthy lifestyle is defined by four basic criteria:
1. Not smoking

2. Holding weight down

3. Eating right

4. Exercising

People’s increasing awareness of the importance of health, has also led to an increase in the use of alternative therapies. These include practices such as herbalism, aromatherapy,acupuncture, an ancient Chinese practice, or Ayurveda, an ancient Indian way of healing. People who use these forms of therapy believe that traditional medicine, which is based on drugs, only treats the symptoms of an illness and doesn’t always deal with the basic causes of illness.

Think of the questions below and about what information may be in the rest of the exam.

1. Why is health a person’s greatest treasure?

2. What other forma of alternative healing do you know?

3. Do you think alternative methods of healing work? Why or why not?

Part one of the test is either a reading exercise or a listening exercise.
For this example, part I is a reading text.
• Try to read this text and answer the questions that follow it in 50
minutes.
• No dictionaries are allowed.
• Write your answers on a piece of paper and then check the answer key
that follows.
Have You Hugged Your Pet Today?

Throughout history animals have played a significant role in human customs, legends and
religions. Primitive people found that human-animal relationships were important to their very survival, and pet-keeping was common in hunter-gatherer societies. Now more than one-half of all US households have pets. Pets are more common in homes with children, but there are more pets than children in the United States. There are more than 51 million dogs, 56 million cats, 45 million birds, 75 million small mammals and reptiles, and uncounted millions of aquarium fish. What can account for this huge surge in pet ownership?
Some people suggest this increase is a reflection of a largely urban population’s often unsatisfied need for intimacy, nurturance, and contact with nature. Today the importance of contact with nature through animal-human relations has been widely acknowledged and determining the benefits of living with companion animals has become
a hot topic for scientific research.

The use of animals in the promotion of health is not a new phenomenon. It is impossible to
determine when animals were first used specifically to promote the physical and psychological well being of people. However one of the first recorded uses of animals in therapeutic settings was horseback riding which has been used for people with serious disabilities for centuries. Another early record of animal therapy occurred in 1792 at the York Retreat, in England. The Retreat incorporated dogs into the treatment of patients with psychological problems. It was thought that the dogs would provide the patients with some responsibility for their care, thereby encouraging them to focus on something external to themselves. This was tried as part of an enlightened approach attempting to reduce the use of harsh drugs and restraints.

The use of animals in the promotion of health is not a new phenomenon. It is impossible to
determine when animals were first used specifically to promote the physical and psychological well being of people. However one of the first recorded uses of animals in therapeutic settings was horseback riding which has been used for people with serious disabilities for centuries. Another early record of animal therapy occurred in 1792 at the York Retreat, in England. The Retreat incorporated dogs into the treatment of patients with psychological problems. It was thought that the dogs would provide the patients with some responsibility for their care, thereby encouraging them to focus on something external to themselves. This was tried as part of an enlightened approach attempting to reduce the use of harsh drugs and restraints.

Işık Üniversitesi Proficiency Hazırlık

The first recorded use of animals in a therapeutic setting in the United States was in 1919 at St. Elizabeth’s Hospital in Washington, D.C., when Superintendent Dr. W.A. White received a letter from Secretary of the Interior F.K. Lane suggesting the use of dogs as companions for the psychiatric hospital’s resident patients. Following this, the earliest extensive use of companion animals in the United States occurred from 1944 to 1945 at an Army Air Corps Convalescent Hospital at Pawling, New York. Patients recovering from war experiences were encouraged to work at the hospital’s farm with cattle, horses, and poultry. After the war, modest efforts began in using animals in outpatient psychotherapy. During the 1970s, numerous case studies of the beneficial effects of animals used in therapy with children and senior citizens were reported. Today, although inconclusive, a number of research projects suggest that owning a pet has a surprising amount of health benefits for the owner. These benefits include lower blood pressure, higher survival rates among heart attack victims, a greater sense of empathy for others, more regular exercise, and a greater sense of happiness. One of the most powerful and health promoting benefits that pet ownership has for the owner is lower blood pressure. A study begun in the late 1970s, clearly demonstrated that when children were asked to read aloud it created a stressful situation in which elevated blood pressure readings were exhibited. This was expected. However, what amazed the medical experts was when a small, familiar dog was placed on the reader’s lap and he or she began to stroke the dog, their blood pressure readings returned to normal, in some cases falling 50%. Further studies indicate that it is not only dogs that can produce this amazing result. Similar results have been found with, horses, cats and other species of animals. Animals react to touch, and human beings react as well in very powerful ways. Another interesting study, that was examining the long-term survival of heart patients, also demonstrated the beneficial aspects of owning a pet. Initially, pets were not a part of the study but became a major focus once it was demonstrated that the second most important factor in the survival of heart patients was whether or not they owned a pet. In the first year of the study, four times as many patients without pets had died than those patients with pets. While these results were inconclusive on their own, they were strong enough to indicate more than coincidence.While it has been quite clearly demonstrated that pets are beneficial for people with health problems, the presence of a pet has also shown the potential to help people learn to empathize with others. Some therapists claim that children raised with animals are better able to understand how others feel and thereby develop stronger relationships with their friends. They suggest that the process of giving care to a pet through the acts of nurturing, touching, holding, protecting, giving food, and guiding, create the same feelings for the caregiver as he or she would experience in being cared for. In turn, these feelings can be utilized in how children deal with other people enabling them to experience more rewarding relationships with others. The psychological support a pet can provide its owner is only a part of the benefits experienced in pet ownership. Another often reported benefit is the dramatic increase in the amount of physical exercise owners get. Relationships with animals such as dogs, or horses require a greater degree of physical movement. Taking the dog for a daily walk, or riding a horse, are enjoyable ways to get more exercise. More exercise enhances our physical health, which in turn has a positive effect on our mental health. Research and self-reports strongly indicate that pets have the ability to help their owners’ understand how others may feel, and encourage them to get more exercise. Further positive benefits that pet owners consistently report are higher levels of happiness and life satisfaction than non-pet owners. Studies of elderly people, AIDS patients, people who live alone, and homeless people all indicate that those who shared their lives with pets were less likely to experience depression, better able to tolerate living alone, and were more active than those who didn’t have pets. Other studies indicate that pets are also great for helping people meet other people. The benefits of increased social interaction with other people when walking a dog can help combat loneliness and facilitate the creation of friendships. Companion dogs provide wheelchair patients with a source of social stimulation that is more constant and more reliable than most human companions. Seeing-eye dogs have been used to improve the lives of visually impaired people for many years. Whatever the disability, nearly 100% of people who have assistant dogs report greater feelings of independence and a higher degree of life satisfaction than before they had their dogs. Why would pets produce these results? It is possible that people who own pets, or respond positively to animals, may have different personality traits than those who do not. While this may be true, the medical theory is that animals reduce stress levels and loneliness and bring people out of themselves. Plus pet ownership may also affect people physiologically through the soothing and relaxing effect of touch. Speechless communication with a pet, or simply watching a cat or fish, may produce a relaxation response with little demand on the person. Research has shown that complex, varied, and interesting daily activity is the strongest social predictor of a long life. Even the shyest person can become more social when he or she is in the presence of animals and taking the dog for a walk is a great way to meet other dog lovers. Pets such as dogs and cats provide unconditional, nonjudgmental love and affection and help shift our narrow focus beyond ourselves, helping us to feel connected to a larger world.

Reading Questions

1. In paragraph one, line one, the word significant means …….?
a. small
b. important
c. friendly
d. dangerous

2. The main idea of paragraph one is ….?
a. People no longer need contact with nature as we did in the past.
b. Animals rely on people for food, care and basic living needs.
c. Scientific research is important for people to be able to survive into the future.
d. Living with animals provides people with important needs.

3. In the last line of paragraph one “companion” means….?
a. someone who is a friend
b. someone unknown.
c. something unsafe
d. a farm animal.

4. The York Retreat in England was one of the first places to use animals to …?
a. to provide patients with animals to keep them busy
b. to make sure the patients didn’t leave the Retreat without permission
c. to help patients become aware of the world outside of themselves.
d. to provide patients with more regular exercise than they previously had

5. Animals were used at York Retreat to reduce ….
a. the use of medication.
b. the number of nursing staff.
c. the length of time patients stayed at the Retreat.
d. problems among the patients.

6. The first recorded use of animals in the United States occurred ….?
a. about 60
b. about 300
c. about 90 years ago.
d. about 35 years ago.

7. According to the article all of the following are benefits of owning a pet except ….
a. feeling happier
b. less serious illnesses.
c. lower blood pressure
d. better survival in heart patients.

8. Companion dogs have been used to ….?
a. determine if pets have a positive effect on children.
b. improve the lives of people who cannot see.
c. reduce loneliness and depression in AIDS patients.
d. all of the above.

9. In paragraph 9, physiologically means …?
a. having to do with feelings
b. having to do with the body
c. having to do with the mind
d. having to do with intelligence

10. In paragraph 9, the phrase “Pets … help shift our narrow focus beyond ourselves” means?
a. pets help us learn to think of things other than ourselves
b. pets help us to get out of the house and do other things
c. pets can take up a lot of our time so we can only think of them.
d. when we live with pets we don’t need anything else.

Işık Üniversitesi Proficiency Hazırlık
 


Match the words or phrases in column A with the best definition or explanation in column B. There is one extra item in column B

A
11. nurturance ________
12. phenomenon _______
13. incorporated ________
14. enlightened _______
15. extensive _______
16. homeless people _______
17. strong indicator of long life ____
18. horseback riding _____
19. Convalescent hospital _____
20. ownership of a pet _______

B
a. widely used.
b. something that is unknown
c. used in the treatment of something
d. caring for something
e. a new and better way to do something.
f. a thing that happened.

a. encouraged patients to work with farmanimals.
b. accounts for the increase in pet ownership
c. helped heart patients to live longer.
d. has been used for hundreds of years to treat people with disabilities.
e. having many different things to do in your life.
f. benefited from having a pet.

 

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